Theories Used in Social Work Practice & Practice Models

 

problem solving theories

Apr 07,  · Insight: Wolfgang Kohler developed his theory based on chimpanzee behavior during problem solving activities. He observed the fact that the chimps had a moment of "insight", when they contemplated a problem until a solution was determined. When this insight occurred, the chimp would perform the necessary tasks in order to solve the problem at hand (Ormrod, ).Author: Kimberlyhowell. Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Theories Used in Social Work Practice & Practice Models. Problem solving assists people with the problem solving process. Rather than tell clients what to do, social workers teach clients how to apply a problem solving method so they can develop their own solutions.


Situational theory of problem solving - Wikipedia


It seems you have no tags attached to pages. To attach a tag simply click on the tags button at the bottom of any page. A problem arises when we need to overcome some problem solving theories in order to get from our current state to a desired state. Problem solving is the process that an organism implements in order to try to get from the current state to the desired state, problem solving theories.

Behaviourist researchers argued that problem solving was a reproductive process; that is, organisms faced with a problem applied behaviour that had been successful on a previous occasion. Successful behaviour was itself believed to have been arrived at through a process of trial-and-error. In Edward Thorndike had developed his law of effect after observing cats discover how to escape from the cage into which he had placed them. This greatly influenced the behaviourist view of problem solving:.

By contrast, problem solving theories, Gestalt psychologists argued that problem solving was a productive process. In particular, in the process of thinking about a problem individuals sometimes "restructured" their representation of the problem, leading to a flash of insight that enabled them to reach a solution. A description of these studies, with photographs, can be found here.

The Gestalt psychologists described several aspects of thought that acted as barriers to successful problem solving. One of these was called the Einstellung effectnow more commonly referred to as mental set or entrenchment. This occurs when a problem solver becomes fixated on applying a strategy that has previously worked, but is less helpful for the current problem.

Luchins reported a study in which people had to use three jugs of differing capacity measured in cups to measure out a required amount of water given by the experimenter. Some people problem solving theories given a series of "practice" trials prior to attempting the critical problems. These practice problems could be solved by filling Jug B, then tipping water from Jug B into Jug A until it is filled, and then twice using the remainging contents of Jug A to fill Jug C.

Expressed as a formula, this is B - A - 2C. However, although this formula could be applied to the subsequent "critical" problems, these also had simpler solutions, such as A - C. People who had experienced the practice problems mostly tried to apply the more complex solution to these later problems, problem solving theories, unlike people who had not experienced the earlier problems who mostly found the simpler solutions, problem solving theories. Another barrier to problem solving is functional fixednesswhereby individuals fail to recognize that objects can be used for a purpose other than that they were designed for.

Maier illustrated this with his two string problem. For a real life example of overcoming fuctional fixedness, see: Overcoming functional fixedness: Apollo What proportion of Maier's participants spontaneously found the solution before getting any kind of hint?

What did Maier do that led some people to get the correct solution? Inproblem solving theories, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon published the book Human Problem Solvingin which they outlined their problem space theory of problem solving.

In this theory, people solve problems by searching in a problem space. The problem space consists of the problem solving theories current state, the goal state, and all possible states in between.

The actions that people take in order to move from one state to another are known as operators. Consider the eight puzzle. The problem space for the eight puzzle consists of the initial arrangement of tiles, problem solving theories, the desired arrangement of tiles normally 1, 2, 3….

However, problem spaces can be very large so the key issue is how people navigate their way through the possibilities, given their limited working memory capacities, problem solving theories. In other words, how do they choose operators? For many problems we possess domain knowledge that helps us decide what to do, problem solving theories. But for novel problems Newell and Simon proposed that operator selection is guided by cognitive short-cuts, problem solving theories, known as heuristics.

The simplest heuristic is repeat-state avoidance or backup avoidance 1whereby individuals prefer not to take an action that would take them back to a previous problem state. This is unhelpful when a person has taken an inappropriate action and problem solving theories needs to go back a step or more.

Another heuristic is difference reductionproblem solving theories, or hill-climbingwhereby people take the action that leads to the biggest similarity problem solving theories current state and goal state, problem solving theories.

Before reading further, see if you can solve the following problem:. On one side of a river are three hobbits and three orcs. They have a boat on their side that is capable of carrying two creatures at a time across the river. The goal is to transport all six creatures across to the other side of the river. At no point on either side of the river can orcs outnumber hobbits or the orcs would eat the outnumbered hobbits.

The problem, then, is to find a method of transporting all six creatures across the river without the hobbits ever being outnumbered, problem solving theories. The solution to this problem, together with an explanation of how difference reduction is often applied, can be found by clicking here. A more sophisticated heuristic is means-ends analysis.

Problem solving theories difference reduction, the means-ends analysis heuristic looks for the action that will lead to the greatest reduction in difference between the current state and goal state, but also specifies what to do if that action cannot be taken. Means-ends analysis can be specified as follows 2 :. The application of means-ends analysis can be illustrated with the Tower of Hanoi problem. In Newell and Simon developed the General Problem Solvera computer program that used means-ends analysis to find solutions to a range of well-defined problems - problems that have clear paths if not easy ones to a goal state.

In their book on problem solving they reported the verbal protocols of participants engaged in problem solving, which showed a problem solving theories match between the steps that they took and those taken by the General Problem Solver. Cognitive Psychology. Create account or Sign in. Welcome page What is a Wiki Site? How to edit pages? How to join this site?

Add a new page. What is problem solving? An historical review of approaches to problem solving The behaviourist approach Behaviourist researchers argued that problem solving was a reproductive problem solving theories that is, organisms faced with a problem applied behaviour that had been successful on a previous occasion.

This greatly influenced the behaviourist view of problem solving: The Gestalt approach By contrast, Gestalt psychologists argued that problem solving was a productive process. Before reading further, see if you can solve the following problem: In the hobbits and orcs problem the task instructions are as follows: On one side of a river are three hobbits and three orcs. Means-ends analysis can be specified as follows 2 : Compare the current state with the goal state. If there is no difference between them, problem solving theories, the problem is solved.

If there is a difference between the current state and the goal state, set a goal to solve that difference. If there is more than one difference, set a goal to solve the largest difference, problem solving theories. Select an operator that will solve the difference identified in Step 2.

If the operator can be applied, apply it. If it cannot, set a new goal to reach a state that would allow the application of the operator. Return to Step 1 with the new goal set in Step 4. Acquiring operators There are three ways in which operators can be acquired: Trial-and-error. As noted above, this formed the basis of the problem solving theories account of problem solving.

Direct instruction. Analogies are examples from one domain the sourcewhose elements can be used to aid problem problem solving theories in another domain the target. However, problem solving theories, novices often struggle to spot analogies, as described here. Next: Problem solving and insight Footnotes. Cognitive psychology and its implications 6th edition. New York: Worth.

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Problem Solving: Theories and Theorists

 

problem solving theories

 

Theories Used in Social Work Practice & Practice Models. Problem solving assists people with the problem solving process. Rather than tell clients what to do, social workers teach clients how to apply a problem solving method so they can develop their own solutions. The article reacts on the works of the leading theorists in the fields of psychology focusing on the theory of problem solving. It contains an analysis of already published knowledge, compares it and evaluates it critically in order to create a basis that is corresponding to the current state of staplrsvsq.ga by: 5. Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology.